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Energy Insights

Virtual PPAs: Future of Renewable Energy

virtual PPA in renewable energy illustration

A virtual PPA (Power Purchase Agreement) is a financial contract between a business and a renewable energy generator. The business agrees to a fixed price for the electricity generated, while the power is sold on the open market. This helps hedge against energy price volatility and supports sustainability goals.

Key takeaways

  • Virtual Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) are financial contracts that support renewable energy without requiring physical installations.
  • Virtual PPAs provide financial stability by locking in energy prices, protecting businesses from market fluctuations.
  • These agreements help businesses meet sustainability goals and reduce carbon footprints.
  • Virtual PPAs do not require on-site renewable energy systems, making them ideal for companies with space or site constraints.
  • They offer a hedge against future energy price increases, mitigating risks associated with volatile energy costs.
  • Implementing a Virtual PPA involves assessing energy needs, partnering with a reliable developer, negotiating terms, and monitoring performance.

Estimated Reading Time: 8 minutes


Renewable energy is a hot topic, and for good reason. As we move towards a greener future, the need for innovative solutions becomes paramount. One such groundbreaking innovation is the Virtual Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

Virtual PPAs are financial contracts that allow businesses to support renewable energy projects without the need for physical installations on their premises. This means companies can back the production of green energy, like wind or solar power, even if they can't directly generate it on-site. These agreements not only help businesses achieve their sustainability goals but also provide financial stability by locking in energy prices and mitigating the risks associated with market volatility. 

Furthermore, Virtual PPAs contribute to the overall growth of the renewable energy sector by ensuring a consistent demand for clean energy, thereby encouraging more investment and development in this crucial field. So, what exactly are Virtual PPAs, and why should they matter to you? Let’s delve deeper into this innovative approach and discover how it can revolutionise our energy landscape.

What are Virtual PPAs?

Virtual PPAs, or Virtual Power Purchase Agreements, are innovative financial contracts designed to facilitate the sale of renewable energy between energy buyers and sellers without the physical delivery of electricity. Essentially, a Virtual PPA ensures that renewable energy is generated, providing benefits to both parties through price stability and sustainability commitments. These agreements are particularly appealing to businesses looking to reduce their carbon footprint and hedge against energy price fluctuations.

A Virtual PPA works by creating a financial arrangement between the buyer and the renewable energy developer. The buyer commits to purchasing a set amount of renewable energy at a predetermined price over a specific period. In turn, the developer sells the generated electricity to the grid at market prices. The key aspect of a Virtual PPA is that the buyer does not receive the actual physical energy produced but rather benefits from the financial transactions and the associated renewable energy certificates (RECs).

Understanding the Basics

To grasp how Virtual PPAs operate, it's essential to understand the fundamental elements involved. In a Virtual PPA, the buyer and the renewable energy developer agree on a fixed price for electricity over a specified period. This price agreement provides financial predictability for both parties. The developer is responsible for constructing and operating a renewable energy facility, such as a solar farm or wind park. The electricity generated by this facility is then sold to the grid at prevailing market prices. The financial difference between the agreed fixed price and the market price is settled between the buyer and the developer.

For example, if the market price of electricity is higher than the fixed price, the developer compensates the buyer for the difference, providing a financial benefit to the buyer. Conversely, if the market price is lower than the fixed price, the buyer compensates the developer. This arrangement ensures that both parties share the financial risks and rewards associated with fluctuating energy prices while promoting the generation of renewable energy.

Table: How Virtual PPAs Work

AgreementA contract is signed between the energy buyer and the renewable energy developer, outlining terms such as duration, fixed price, and energy quantity.
Energy GenerationThe developer builds and operates a renewable energy facility, like a solar park or wind farm.
Selling to the GridThe generated energy is sold to the grid at market prices, and financial credits are exchanged between the buyer and the developer.
SettlementThe financial difference between the fixed price and the market price of electricity is regularly settled between the buyer and the developer.

How Do Virtual PPAs Work?

Virtual PPAs provide a mechanism for businesses to support renewable energy projects without the need to install renewable energy systems on their properties. This flexibility is particularly beneficial for companies that lack the physical space or resources to implement on-site renewable energy solutions. Here's a detailed look at how Virtual PPAs function.

Step 1: Agreement

The first step in implementing a Virtual PPA is entering into a contractual agreement with a renewable energy developer. This contract outlines the terms of the agreement, including the duration, the fixed price for the electricity, and the amount of energy that the developer will produce. The fixed price is a crucial element, as it provides price stability for the buyer, protecting them from market volatility. This agreement is meticulously negotiated to align with the business’s energy needs and sustainability goals.

Step 2: Energy Generation

Once the agreement is in place, the developer proceeds to construct and operate a renewable energy facility. This facility could be a solar park, a wind farm, or any other type of renewable energy installation. The developer is responsible for all aspects of the facility’s construction and operation, ensuring that it generates the agreed-upon amount of renewable energy. The energy produced by this facility is then fed into the national or regional grid, contributing to the overall supply of renewable energy.

Step 3: Selling to the Grid

The energy generated by the renewable energy facility is sold to the grid at market prices. This process involves feeding the electricity into the grid, where it becomes part of the general energy supply. Although the buyer does not receive this physical energy directly, they benefit from the financial transactions that occur as a result. By selling the energy to the grid, the developer earns revenue, which is essential for the financial viability of the project. The energy buyer, on the other hand, receives renewable energy certificates (RECs) or financial credits, which can be used to demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

Step 4: Settlement

At regular intervals, typically monthly or quarterly, the financial difference between the agreed fixed price and the market price of electricity is calculated and settled. This settlement process is the core of the Virtual PPA arrangement. If the market price of electricity is higher than the fixed price, the developer pays the difference to the buyer. This payment compensates the buyer for the higher market prices, providing financial stability. Conversely, if the market price is lower than the fixed price, the buyer compensates the developer. This arrangement ensures that both parties share the financial risks and rewards associated with fluctuating energy prices, fostering a mutually beneficial relationship.

Benefits of Virtual PPAs

Virtual PPAs offer a multitude of advantages for businesses striving to enhance their environmental credentials and achieve financial stability. By engaging in Virtual PPAs, companies can demonstrate their commitment to sustainability while also securing economic benefits.

Financial Stability

One of the most significant advantages of Virtual PPAs is the ability to lock in energy prices. This price certainty protects businesses from the unpredictability of market fluctuations. In an era where energy prices can be highly volatile, having a fixed rate for electricity over a long period can simplify budgeting and long-term financial planning. This stability allows businesses to forecast their energy costs accurately, which is particularly beneficial for industries with tight profit margins. By avoiding the risks associated with fluctuating energy prices, companies can allocate resources more effectively and focus on their core operations.

Sustainability Goals

Virtual PPAs play a crucial role in helping businesses meet their sustainability targets. By supporting renewable energy projects, companies can significantly reduce their carbon footprints. This commitment to green energy is not just about meeting regulatory requirements; it also enhances corporate social responsibility. Consumers and stakeholders increasingly favour businesses that prioritise sustainability. By aligning with renewable energy initiatives through Virtual PPAs, companies can bolster their reputation, attract environmentally-conscious customers, and create a positive impact on the environment. This proactive approach to sustainability demonstrates leadership and responsibility in tackling climate change.

No Physical Constraints

Unlike traditional Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs), Virtual PPAs do not require the physical installation of renewable energy systems on the buyer's property. This flexibility is ideal for businesses that may lack the necessary space or face site constraints. For instance, urban companies with limited rooftop or land availability can still participate in renewable energy projects without logistical challenges. Virtual PPAs enable these businesses to support green energy generation remotely, ensuring that they can contribute to sustainability goals without the need for on-site infrastructure. This remote participation is a game-changer, making renewable energy accessible to a broader range of companies.

Risk Management

Virtual PPAs provide an effective hedge against future energy price increases. By agreeing on a fixed price for electricity, businesses can mitigate the risks associated with rising energy costs. This risk management tool is invaluable in an unpredictable energy market. As traditional energy prices fluctuate due to geopolitical events, supply chain disruptions, or changes in demand, having a fixed-rate agreement shields businesses from sudden cost spikes. This protective measure allows companies to maintain financial stability, even in volatile market conditions, ensuring that energy costs remain predictable and manageable over the long term.

How to Implement a Virtual PPA

Embarking on the journey of implementing a Virtual PPA might seem complex, but with the right approach, it becomes a straightforward process. Here's a detailed guide to help you navigate the steps involved in setting up a Virtual PPA for your business.

Step 1: Assess Your Energy Needs

The first step in implementing a Virtual PPA is to evaluate your current energy consumption and sustainability goals. Conduct a thorough assessment of your energy usage patterns, peak demand times, and overall energy requirements. This evaluation will help you determine the right size and type of renewable energy project to support. Understanding your energy needs is crucial in selecting a project that aligns with your business objectives and sustainability targets. This initial step sets the foundation for a successful Virtual PPA by ensuring that the agreement meets your specific energy demands.

Step 2: Find a Partner

Once you have a clear understanding of your energy needs, the next step is to partner with a reputable renewable energy developer. Look for companies with a strong track record and expertise in managing Virtual PPAs. A reliable partner will guide you through the process, from project selection to contract negotiation. They will help you identify suitable renewable energy projects, whether it's a solar park, wind farm, or another type of renewable energy facility. Choosing the right partner is critical, as their experience and resources will play a significant role in the success of your Virtual PPA.

Step 3: Negotiate Terms

Negotiating the terms of the agreement is a crucial step in setting up a Virtual PPA. This involves detailed discussions on the duration of the contract, the fixed price for electricity, and the renewable energy targets. Ensure that the terms align with your business objectives and financial capabilities. Consider the length of the contract and how it fits into your long-term planning. A well-negotiated agreement will provide price stability and support your sustainability goals. It's important to address all aspects of the contract thoroughly to avoid any future disputes and to ensure that both parties have a clear understanding of their commitments.

Step 4: Monitor and Adjust

Once the Virtual PPA is in place, it's essential to regularly monitor the performance of the renewable energy project. Keep track of energy production, market prices, and the financial settlements. Regular monitoring allows you to assess whether the project is meeting your sustainability goals and provides an opportunity to make necessary adjustments. If market conditions change or if your energy needs evolve, you may need to renegotiate certain terms of the agreement. Continuous oversight ensures that the Virtual PPA remains beneficial and aligned with your business objectives over the long term.


Virtual PPAs are revolutionising the renewable energy landscape by providing businesses with the flexibility to support green energy initiatives without the need for on-site installations. They offer a win-win solution for both energy buyers and developers by locking in energy prices and meeting sustainability targets. Virtual PPAs empower businesses to make a positive impact on the environment while ensuring financial stability.

Ready to make a positive impact? Explore how Energy Action can help you implement a Virtual PPA and lead the charge towards a sustainable future. Visit Energy Action to learn more.

By embracing Virtual PPAs, your business can achieve energy cost stability and contribute to a greener planet. It's a strategic move that benefits both your bottom line and the environment. Ready to take the leap? Let Energy Action guide you through the process and set you on the path to sustainable success.


  1. What is a Virtual PPA? A Virtual PPA is a financial agreement between an energy buyer and a renewable energy developer, enabling the buyer to support renewable energy projects and receive financial benefits or renewable energy certificates.
  2. How does a Virtual PPA differ from a traditional PPA? Unlike traditional PPAs, Virtual PPAs do not involve the physical delivery of energy. Instead, they focus on financial transactions and the generation of renewable energy certificates.
  3. What are the financial benefits of a Virtual PPA? Virtual PPAs provide price stability by locking in energy costs, protecting businesses from market volatility, and helping in long-term financial planning.
  4. Can small businesses participate in Virtual PPAs? Yes, Virtual PPAs are scalable and can be tailored to meet the needs of businesses of all sizes, including small enterprises.
  5. How do Virtual PPAs contribute to sustainability goals? By supporting renewable energy projects, Virtual PPAs help businesses reduce their carbon footprint and meet sustainability targets, enhancing their corporate social responsibility.

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