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Australian Retailer of Last Resort (ROLR): A Comprehensive Guide

The Retailer of Last Resort (RoLR) scheme in Australia is a vital component of the country's energy sector. It is designed to ensure uninterrupted electricity and gas supplies for consumers. Established by the Australian Energy Regulator (AER), the RoLR exists to make sure that your businesses lights stay on. With a nationwide scope, the scheme is both a protective measure and an essential safeguard for the energy market's stability.

Under the RoLR framework, specific retailers are appointed to take over supplying energy if a retailer fails. These RoLRs must be prepared to assume the customer base of the failed retailer and fulfill their obligations. maintaining the integrity of the energy market. The AER oversees the administration and monitors effectiveness of the RoLR scheme.

Key Takeaways

  • The Retailer of Last Resort (RoLR) scheme ensures uninterrupted electricity and gas supply for Australian consumers in the event of a retailer's failure.
  • Specific retailers, known as Designated RoLRs, are appointed to take over supply responsibilities, maintaining the stability of the energy market.
  • The Australian Energy Regulator (AER) oversees the RoLR scheme's administration and monitoring, ensuring its effectiveness in providing continuous services to consumers.

ROLR Overview

The RoLR is governed by the Retail Law. The RoLR scheme provides a safety net for customers by transferring them to a default retailer. This ensures that their energy supply remains uninterrupted during the transition process.

Under the Retail Law, the Australian Energy Regulator (AER) is responsible for overseeing the RoLR scheme. One of the key aspects involves designating certain energy retailers as default RoLRs. These retailers include AGL, Origin, and EnergyAustralia. The designated retailers are required to take over the customer base of any failed retailer. The selection of the RoLR depends on the geographical location of the affected customers.

There are many different ways a retailer failure can occur, such as:

  • Suspension from wholesale energy markets by the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO).
  • Insolvency or financial issues resulting in the retailer's inability to continue operations.

The RoLR scheme ensures that energy supply to affected customers continues running smoothly. The AER also monitors the performance of RoLRs to guarantee compliance with the scheme and uphold standards of service.

Roles and Responsibilities

Australian Energy Regulator (AER)

The Australian Energy Regulator (AER) is responsible for overseeing the national Retailer of Last Resort (RoLR) scheme in Australia. The AER establishes and maintains the Register of RoLRs, which lists all current default and additional RoLRs appointed by the AER for gas and electricity along with their appointment details. The AER is also responsible for issuing guidelines and plans to help define the roles and responsibilities of the RoLRs.

Default and Designated ROLRs

There are two main types of RoLRs: Default RoLRs and Designated RoLRs.

Default RoLRs are energy retailers who are automatically assigned to customers in the event of failure. These default RoLRs are pre-determined based on specific criteria set by the AER. Default RoLRs are required to provide ongoing energy supply to affected customers, ensuring a smooth transition during retailer failure.

Designated RoLRs are selected by the AER in specific circumstances to manage customers affected by a retailer's failure. Designated RoLRs may be appointed for particular regions or customer types, depending on the situation. They must also ensure that customers continue to receive energy supply during the retailer's failure.

Responsibilities of ROLRs

RoLRs, both default and designated, have several responsibilities to fulfil during the retailer failure event. Some of their responsibilities include:

  1. Maintaining supply continuity: this means they must ensure that customers continue to receive electricity and/or gas supply without any interruptions during the retailer failure.
  2. Customer communication: the need to communicate with affected customers, informing them about the change in retailer and any related matters.
  3. Pricing: they must offer new pricing plans to the affected customers. However, these rates should not negatively impact the customers in comparison to their previous retailer’s plans.

RoLRs must follow the AER's guidelines and requirements to ensure that customers can seamlessly transition without being affected by the retailer failure.

ROLR Events and Triggers

A Retailer of Last Resort (RoLR) event is an important measure within the Australian energy market, designed to safeguard customers in case a retailer fails. The Australian Energy Regulator (AER) oversees the national RoLR scheme. They ensure that suitable arrangements are in place to maintain the supply of electricity and gas to affected customers.

An event occurs when an energy retailer faces failure, e.g insolvency, license cancellation, or non-compliance with regulatory requirements.

The RoLR plan sets out the procedures to be followed by participants during a RoLR event. They communicate directly with the customers of the failed retailer and keep them up to date with the situation. The AER is responsible for appointing RoLRs, which are listed on the Register of RoLRs.

Retailer of Last Resort (RoLR) Cost Recovery Scheme


The RoLR Cost Recovery Scheme allows Retailers of Last Resort to recover the costs incurred in preparing for and following a RoLR event. The costs covered include any extra administrative and supply expenses.

Consultation Process

The AER follows a process to ensure transparency and allow stakeholders to provide input on the RoLR cost recovery schemes. Retailers, customers, and other market participants are encouraged to participate in the process. The AER publishes documents, such as the Retailer of Last Resort Guideline, Plan and Statement of Approach, to provide guidance. Feedback from the consultation process is taken into account, leading to improvements in the RoLR Scheme.

Key Australian Energy Retailers

The key retailers in Australia include Origin, AGL, and EnergyAustralia. They play a critical role in the country's energy sector and make sure customers have access to reliable electricity and gas supply.

Origin is one of Australia's biggest energy companies. They have a diverse portfolio of power generation assets and operations across the country. They provide a mix of regular electricity and gas, as well as renewable options.  Origin's commitment to sustainability makes it an essential player in the transition to a low-carbon economy.

AGL is another major Australian energy retailer, with a long history dating back over 180 years. They supply energy to millions of homes and businesses across the country, with a focus on innovation and reliability. AGL is committed to a sustainable energy future, investing in renewable projects such as wind farms, solar power plants, and battery storage facilities. By offering customers options to opt for greener energy plans, AGL helps drive the shift towards a cleaner power sector.

EnergyAustralia is one of the largest energy retailers, operating in every state and territory. They serve over 1.7 million customers and has a diverse range of power generation assets under its umbrella. These include coal-fired power stations, gas-fired power plants, and renewable energy projects. EnergyAustralia invests in clean energy technologies to meet the evolving demands of the market.

Distribution Networks and Energy Retailers

Gas Distribution Networks

Gas distribution networks are what transport natural gas from transmission pipelines to consumers. These networks are managed and operated by different entities, one of which is the Australian Gas Networks (AGN). AGN plays a pivotal role in delivering gas services to a vast customer base across the country.

Another important player in the gas distribution market is the Central Ranges Pipeline. They are a key infrastructure in delivering gas supplies to regional areas in Australia.

Electricity Distribution Networks

Electricity distribution networks in Australia are what transport electricity from power generation facilities consumers. These networks are comprised of substations, transformers, and a vast array of powerlines. Similar to gas distribution networks, several entities are responsible for the operations of this infrastructure

Energy retailers, on the other hand, purchase electricity and gas from wholesale markets and sell it to end-users. 

Some notable energy retailers in Australia include Mojo Power Pty Ltd, and QEnergy Limited Elysian Energy has recently undergone a retailer of last resort process, with its customers being transferred to other retailers to ensure the continued provision of electricity services.

In recent years, there has been a growing number of emerging energy retailers. These retailers provide innovative solutions and unique offerings in a growing market.

One example is Enova Energy. They are a community-owned company focusing on renewable energy and local energy generation. Enova Energy strives to minimise consumers' reliance on traditional power sources and contribute to the expansion of sustainable energy solutions.

Another notable player is Mojo Power East Pty Ltd, They offer innovative and transparent pricing models intended to empower customers. Mojo Power seeks to help customers make informed decisions about their energy consumption and costs.

Lastly, Weston Energy small and medium-sized businesses with tailored services. They seek to deliver personalised solutions that respond to the individual demands of businesses.

Statement of Approach and Legislation

The RoLR framework ensures that customers continue to receive their energy supply in case of retailer failure. This framework is governed by the National Energy Retail Law (Retail Law) and applies to numerous regions, including Queensland, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory, South Australia, and Tasmania.

The AER handles drafting and maintaining the RoLR guidelines. The guidelines dictate the duties and obligations of various stakeholders, such as retailers, wholesalers, and other market participants.

In addition to the guidelines, the AER has developed a Statement of Approach document. This explains the regulator's approach towards managing RoLR events. It's a comprehensive overview of the general principles and considerations that the AER follows in administering and enforcing the RoLR framework under Retail Law.

The RoLR scheme enables a seamless transfer of clients to a new retailer. The AER's enforcement and monitoring of retailer requirements through trading operations contribute to energy supply stability and consumer protection.

Equipment and Energy Supply Information

As part of the RoLR scheme, customers can rely on the appointment of a reliable retailer, such as EnergyAustralia, to provide a seamless transition for energy supply. This ensures that essential equipment and energy-related infrastructures continue running without disruption.

The RoLR scheme takes into account the various types of equipment used by customers. For example, in the event of a retailer failure, EnergyAustralia would step in and keep the lights on for all customers. It is important to note that the scheme covers both residential and commercial customers.

The RoLR plan published by AER works in conjunction with other participants to protect the customers of a failed retailer. Under the Retail Law, the RoLR scheme establishes arrangements to transfer the customers to a designated retailer.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the purpose of the Retailer of Last Resort plan?

The RoLR plan provides consumers with an uninterrupted energy supply in the event that their energy retailer fails or runs into financial problems. The Australian Energy Regulator creates and maintains the RoLR plan, which outlines the processes that market participants in such occurrences must follow.

How does the Retailer of Last Resort scheme function in Victoria?

In Victoria, the RoLR scheme operates similarly to other Australian states, with the primary goal of ensuring a continuous energy supply to consumers if their retailer fails. Energy consumers are automatically transferred to a RoLR without having to choose a new retailer. However, customers are free to choose another retailer if they prefer after the transfer takes place.

What are the criteria for a supplier to become the electricity Retailer of Last Resort?

The Australian Energy Regulator (AER) appoints a retailer as a RoLR based on specific criteria, which include the retailer's capacity to take on affected customers, having a sound financial position, and maintaining a strong performance in its regulatory obligations.

Which are the Tier 1 energy retailers in Australia?

The Tier 1 energy retailers in Australia, also known as the "Big 3", include Origin Energy, AGL, and EnergyAustralia. These companies are considered the most prominent energy providers within the Australian market and play a crucial role in the RoLR scheme.

How does the Australian Energy Regulator oversee the ROLR guidelines?

The Australian Energy Regulator is responsible for overseeing the national RoLR scheme. The AER develops, maintains, and assesses RoLR plans for each state or region, ensuring market participants adhere to the required procedures and guidelines. The AER also appoints RoLRs based on stipulated criteria and monitors their compliance with RoLR obligations.

What role do the Big 3 energy retailers play in the ROLR scheme?

The Big 3 energy retailers (Origin Energy, AGL, and EnergyAustralia) often serve as default RoLRs due to their financial stability and capacity to take on a large number of customers if a retailer fails. They are essential in maintaining a continuous energy supply for affected customers and ensuring a smooth transition during a RoLR event.

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