Make a payment

Energy Insights

Australian Carbon Credits Units Explained: All You Need to Know

Australia's carbon credit system plays a vital role in the country's efforts to combat climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Australian Carbon Credit Units (ACCUs) represent a key component of this system, functioning as tradable certificates that correspond to the reduction or removal of one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions. By participating in the issuance, trading, and offsetting of these credits, businesses and individuals can contribute to lowering the country's carbon footprint and supporting innovative carbon abatement projects.

The ACCUs are generated through a range of eligible projects, including renewable energy, energy efficiency, and land management initiatives. These projects must adhere to specific methodologies and reporting requirements in order to earn credits and participate in the Emissions Reduction Fund (ERF) auctions. Through these auctions, the Clean Energy Regulator awards government contracts for the delivery of emissions reduction, expanding the carbon credit market and helping Australia reach its emission reduction targets.

Key Takeaways

  • ACCUs are tradable certificates representing one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions reduced or removed through eligible projects
  • Projects can earn ACCUs and participate in Emissions Reduction Fund auctions, contributing to Australia's efforts to meet its climate targets
  • The Clean Energy Regulator oversees the process of ACCU issuance, auction participation, and the compliance of projects

Understanding ACCUs

Basics of Australian Carbon Credit Units

Australian Carbon Credit Units (ACCUs) are financial instruments awarded to eligible energy efficiency, renewable energy generation, and carbon sequestration projects that result in a reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. One ACCU represents the avoidance or removal of one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2-e) GHG. These units are issued by the Clean Energy Regulator (Regulator) by making an entry for the unit in an account kept by the person in the electronic Australian National Registry of Emissions Units (Registry) ^2^.

In 2022, a record 17.7 million ACCUs were issued, up from 17 million ACCUs in 2021. This increase demonstrates the growing market for carbon credits within Australia and the nation's focus on reducing GHG emissions.

Emissions Reduction Fund and ACCUs

The Emissions Reduction Fund (ERF) is a key component of the Australian Government's climate change policy. The ERF operates by providing incentives for a wide range of organisations and projects to reduce or remove GHG emissions. ACCUs play a significant role in the ERF, acting as the currency for emission reductions, ensuring that successful projects are recognised and rewarded for their contributions.

Organisations participate in ERF projects by submitting proposals to reduce or sequester emissions. If approved, the Clean Energy Regulator issues ACCUs that can be sold to the government or other entities to help them offset their emissions. The increasing interest in purchasing ACCUs ^2^ showcases the expanding role carbon credits play in both the voluntary and compliance markets across Australia.

In summary, ACCUs are essential components of Australia's efforts to reduce GHG emissions. They serve as a measurable unit representing the successful reduction of emissions through various projects and initiatives. As the market for carbon credits continues to grow, Australia's commitment to combatting climate change and supporting sustainable development becomes increasingly evident through the Emissions Reduction Fund and the issuance of Australian Carbon Credit Units.

Carbon Abatement Process

The Carbon Abatement Process encompasses various strategies and technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating their effects on the environment. This process can be broadly categorised into three key components: Carbon Capture and Storage, Emissions Avoidance, and Offset.

Carbon Capture and Storage

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) refers to a set of techniques and technologies used to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at their source, such as power plants and industrial facilities. Once captured, the CO2 is compressed and transported to a suitable storage site, typically underground geological formations where it cannot leak into the atmosphere. Some examples of storage sites include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep saline aquifers, and unmineable coal seams. CCS has the potential to significantly reduce carbon emissions, contributing to global efforts to combat climate change.

Emissions Avoidance

Emissions Avoidance refers to the strategies and practices implemented to prevent or minimise the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. This often involves adopting cleaner energy solutions, improving energy efficiency, and investing in sustainable technologies. Examples of emissions avoidance include utilising renewable energy sources, such as solar or wind power, and enhancing insulation in buildings to reduce heating and cooling requirements. Emissions Avoidance not only helps reduce carbon emissions but also offers additional benefits like reduced operational costs and improved energy security.


Carbon offsets are a practical and effective way to counterbalance the emissions produced by businesses, individuals, or organisations by investing in projects that remove or reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) elsewhere. These projects may include afforestation, reforestation, methane capture, and renewable energy installations. By investing in carbon offsets, entities can achieve their emissions reduction goals while supporting projects that contribute to the overall reduction of GHGs in the atmosphere.

In Australia, the Carbon Abatement Process is enforced through mechanisms such as the Emissions Reduction Fund and the Australian carbon credit units. These promote the participation of landholders, communities, and businesses in running projects that avoid the release of GHGs or remove and sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Each Australian carbon credit unit represents one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2-e) stored or avoided by a project, ensuring that efforts made towards carbon abatement are quantifiable and standardised.

Emissions Reduction Fund Auctions

Participation and Bidding

The Emissions Reduction Fund (ERF) offers a financial incentive to businesses, households, and landowners in Australia to proactively reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Through ERF, the government purchases the lowest cost abatement in the form of Australian Carbon Credit Units (ACCUs) via auctions. These auctions enable ERF participants with registered projects to bid for a contract to sell their ACCUs to the Clean Energy Regulator.

ERF auctions take place periodically and involve a selection process based on the price of the submitted bids. Successful bidders are awarded a carbon abatement contract, which helps finance their emissions reduction projects. In the 14th ERF auction, for example, 7.6 million tonnes of carbon abatement were contracted for optional delivery at an average price of AUD 17.35 per ACCU.

Safeguard Mechanism

The Safeguard Mechanism is a crucial component of the ERF that aims to maintain the integrity of the emissions reduction efforts. It sets emissions baselines for large facilities and ensures that pollution levels do not increase significantly due to new projects or purchases of low-cost abatement through the auctions.

If a facility exceeds its baseline, it must take corrective measures, such as acquiring and surrendering ACCUs to offset the excess emissions. This mechanism encourages responsible emissions management and helps maintain Australia's progress towards its emissions reduction targets.

Carbon Credit Supply and Pricing

Australia's carbon credit market is represented by the Australian Carbon Credit Units (ACCUs). These credits are issued by the Clean Energy Regulator and can be traded in the market as a means to offset carbon emissions. In this section, we will discuss the supply and pricing of ACCUs, focusing on spot price, ACCU supply, and carbon pricing.

The supply of ACCUs has shown a steady increase in recent years. In 2022, a record 17.7 million ACCUs were issued, up from 17 million in 2021. Issuances for 2023 are expected to see a modest increase and exceed 18 million. This growth in supply can be attributed to the growing demand for carbon offsets and the increasing number of projects seeking to generate ACCUs.

The spot price of ACCUs has experienced significant fluctuations in recent times. In the third quarter of 2021, the ACCU spot price increased by more than $7, reaching $26.50. Shortly after, in early November, it climbed further to an all-time high of $37. Various factors contribute to the price changes, such as policy announcements, market perceptions, and supply-demand dynamics.

Carbon pricing remains a vital aspect of Australia's approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As of November 2021, the price of Australian carbon credit units reached a record high of $36.50. While this milestone demonstrates progress in Australia's carbon market, there is still a long way to go in terms of achieving international climate goals and closing the gap in carbon pricing compared to other nations.

In summary, the supply and pricing of ACCUs play a crucial role in Australia's carbon market and efforts to reduce emissions. The market has exhibited growth in terms of both supply and price, highlighting the nation's commitment to addressing climate change. However, sustained policymaking and strategic investments will be necessary to continue this positive trend and achieve long-term climate objectives.

The Role of ANREU

The Australian National Registry of Emissions Units (ANREU) is a secure electronic system that plays a vital role in the administration of the Australian carbon credit units (ACCUs). It is designed to track the location and ownership of ACCUs issued under the Emissions Reduction Fund and emission units issued under the Kyoto Protocol. The ANREU serves as a crucial platform for the federal government to monitor and account for greenhouse gas emissions in Australia.

Creating and Managing ANREU Accounts

To participate in the carbon credit market, individuals and organisations need to create an account with the ANREU. These accounts facilitate the issuance, holding, transfer, and acquisition of ACCUs, which are central to the Australian government's Emissions Reduction Fund. Each ACCU represents one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2-e) stored or avoided by a project.

Managing an ANREU account involves regular updates, ensuring the accurate reporting of the number of ACCUs held by individuals and organisations. Account holders can transfer and trade ACCUs with other account holders, contributing to the overall reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the country. It is crucial for account holders to comply with the regulations set forth by the federal government to maintain the integrity of the system.

The ANREU makes the carbon credit market accessible and transparent, as it allows tracking the location and ownership of ACCUs within a secure digital platform. This system simplifies the process for stakeholders involved, promoting investments in emission reduction projects and contributing to Australia's climate change mitigation efforts.

Registered Projects and Carbon Offsets

Project Types

Australia's carbon credit projects are registered under the Emissions Reduction Fund (ERF) and are designed to help reduce the overall carbon footprint of the country. The project types include renewable energy, carbon sequestration, and other activities aimed at achieving net zero emissions. These projects not only contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions but also support initiatives aimed at carbon sequestration, which plays a significant role in achieving net zero goals.

Project Registrations and Approval

To register a project under the ERF, it must meet specific eligibility criteria as outlined in the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Act 2011 (CFI Act) Section 27. The Clean Energy Regulator assesses and approves projects that meet these criteria. Once registered, project proponents can generate and apply for Australian Carbon Credit Units (ACCUs), representing one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2-e) stored or avoided by the project.

Decarbonisation and Co-Benefits

Registered projects contribute to the decarbonisation of Australia's economy by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting cleaner, more sustainable energy sources. Apart from their primary focus, these projects often provide co-benefits, such as:

  • Improvements in air and water quality
  • Enhanced biodiversity and ecosystem resilience
  • Community engagement and employment opportunities
  • Technology innovation and investment in renewable energy infrastructure

By supporting an array of registered projects, Australia is taking essential steps to address climate change and transition to a low-carbon future in a comprehensive and integrated manner.

The Secondary Market and Investors

The secondary market for Australian Carbon Credit Units (ACCUs) has seen significant growth recently, with increasing interest from investors and corporations. In Q3 2022, a total of 8.4 million ACCUs were transacted, marking a fourfold increase compared to the same period in the previous year. This surge indicates a strong demand for carbon credits and a growing awareness of the importance of emissions reductions.

Investors, ranging from individual traders to institutional players, are participating in the secondary market as they seek opportunities to diversify their portfolios and contribute to climate change mitigation efforts. Additionally, large corporations are actively purchasing ACCUs to meet their emissions reduction targets, especially in the wake of international climate conferences like COP26.

One of the key factors driving the demand for ACCUs is the growing global consensus on the need for climate action, which is also mirrored in Australia's long-term goals. According to KPMG, the country has the potential to achieve carbon removal, capture, and sequestration of up to 100 million tonnes per annum by 2050, accounting for around one-fifth of current Australian emissions.

The secondary market for ACCUs operates within the broader framework of Australia's carbon market. Since its establishment, the Clean Energy Regulator (CER) has played a central role in this market by overseeing the creation and issuance of ACCUs. Although the majority of credits have been sold back to the government, the secondary market is becoming increasingly important for both investors and corporations working towards a greener future.

Government Policy and Net Zero Emissions

Carbon Neutral and Net-Zero Targets

Australia has been working towards reducing its carbon footprint, focusing on achieving carbon neutrality and net-zero emissions by the year 2050. The government has set out policies and strategies to lower emissions and transition to cleaner sources of energy. Key to this has been the implementation of the Emissions Reduction Fund (ERF), which seeks to establish a carbon floor price to incentivise emission reductions.

The ERF allows individuals and companies to run projects that either avoid or store carbon dioxide emissions, and in return, they are awarded Australian Carbon Credit Units (ACCUs). Each ACCU represents one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2-e) either stored or avoided by the project. These credits can then be sold or exchanged in the carbon market, providing a financial incentive to reduce emissions and contribute to Australia's climate change mitigation efforts.

In addition to the ERF, the government has also introduced stricter carbon emission limits on the country's largest polluters. Starting in July 2023, an accumulated 200 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions will be cut by the end of the decade, as part of the proposed 4.9% annual emissions reductions on major emitters.

This combination of policies and mechanisms aims to support projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while also providing financial incentives for companies and individuals to adopt low-carbon technologies and practices. By setting clear targets and providing the necessary incentives, the Australian government strives to achieve carbon neutrality and net-zero emissions by the year 2050, ultimately contributing to global efforts to combat climate change.

Environmental Markets and Impacts

Agriculture and Biodiversity

Australia's carbon credit units play a significant role in supporting the sustainability of agricultural practices and the preservation of biodiversity. One crucial aspect of this involvement is the promotion of projects that facilitate carbon sequestration through activities like afforestation, reforestation, and avoided deforestation. These projects not only contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions but also help safeguard ecosystems, maintain healthy soil quality, and promote a diverse range of flora and fauna within the country.

Energy Efficiency

Australia's carbon credit system also has a notable impact on energy efficiency by incentivising clean technology adoption and energy conservation practices. Through the trading and availability of carbon credits, industry stakeholders are encouraged to invest in energy-efficient technologies and practices, thereby contributing to the overall reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, businesses and organisations can reduce their carbon footprint, save energy costs, and foster a more sustainable economy.

Fossil Fuel Emissions

The impact of Australia's carbon credits on fossil fuel emissions is of utmost importance, as the country works towards a more sustainable energy future. Through carbon pricing mechanisms, carbon credits act as both an incentive and a deterrent for companies to limit their dependency on fossil fuels and promote the adoption of renewable energy sources. This market-driven, regulatory approach allows for cost-effective emissions reductions, encouraging businesses to transition towards cleaner energy alternatives while reducing the overall impact of fossil fuel emissions on the environment.

Savanna Burning and Carbon Credits

Savanna burning is a significant aspect of Australia's carbon market, as it plays a crucial role in managing greenhouse gas emissions. Land managers who undertake savanna burning receive financial rewards in the form of Australian Carbon Credit Units (ACCUs). The Emissions Reduction Fund (ERF) incentivises this practice, promoting a more climate-friendly approach to land management.

In Australia, savanna ecosystems cover a vast area of the continent, particularly across the northern regions. These ecosystems, made up of grasslands, woodlands, and forests, are prone to seasonal fires. Historically, these fires accounted for a substantial portion of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions. However, through improved fire management practices, such as controlled burning during the early dry season, land managers can significantly reduce the overall emissions produced.

Carbon Credits come into play as a financial incentive for land managers to engage in savanna burning projects. Under the ERF, one Australian Carbon Credit Unit represents one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2-e) in stored or avoided greenhouse gas emissions. This allows land managers to earn ACCUs for implementing savanna fire management methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from fires.

The Aboriginal Carbon Foundation explains that savanna burning earns "Kyoto compliant" carbon credits as the emissions from such practices are counted towards Australia's national account under the Kyoto Protocol. The second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol spans from 2013-2020, highlighting the growing importance of effective land management techniques in combating climate change.

In addition to the environmental benefits, savanna burning projects provide opportunities for Indigenous Australians to engage in carbon farming activities, promoting community development and cultural connections to the land. As a result, savanna burning and carbon credits help bridge the gap between environmental sustainability, cultural significance, and economic development.

Private Buyers and Greencollar

In the Australian carbon market, private buyers play a significant role in purchasing and trading Australian Carbon Credit Units (ACCUs). These buyers often seek the expert assistance of companies like GreenCollar to help them navigate the complex processes involved in acquiring and managing carbon credits.

GreenCollar is a leading project developer that provides the Australian Government with more ACCUs than any other company in the market. They have substantial experience in connecting land managers and investors, effectively delivering carbon credits to various entities. Private buyers rely on the expertise of GreenCollar for identifying and investing in carbon credit projects with significant co-benefits. These co-benefits often include enhancements in biodiversity, water quality, and social impact.

GreenCollar offers a client portal for private buyers to efficiently manage their carbon credit investments. The portal facilitates the tracking, purchasing, and trading of ACCUs, making the entire process convenient and transparent for the buyer.

As a broker in the carbon market, GreenCollar works with project proponents who develop and implement emissions reduction projects. These projects generate ACCUs that can be traded and sold to private buyers or the government. The proponents receive financial benefits in exchange for the reduction in emissions, incentivising further use of sustainable practices.

Private buyers who invest in carbon credits often require an Australian National Registry of Emissions Units (ANREU) account to manage their holdings. GreenCollar assists in setting up these accounts, ensuring buyers have a seamless experience when purchasing or trading ACCUs.

Additionally, GreenCollar addresses concerns such as exit fees associated with carbon offset projects. By providing tailored solutions and expert advice, they ensure private buyers have a clear understanding of the financial and legal implications of their carbon credit investments.

In conclusion, GreenCollar plays a vital role in the Australian carbon market by assisting private buyers with their carbon credit investments. Through their expertise in the field, they help contribute to the growth and sustainability of the market.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are carbon credits?

Carbon credits are tradable permits representing the right to emit a certain amount of greenhouse gases. They are an essential component of market-based strategies used to incentivize emission reductions and combat climate change.

How do carbon credits work in Australia?

In Australia, carbon credits are part of the Emissions Reduction Fund, which is a government initiative to incentivise emission reduction projects across various sectors. The Australian Government commits funds to the purchase of emissions reductions through a competitive auction system, encouraging businesses to develop projects to generate carbon credits.

What is an Australian Carbon Credit Unit (ACCU)?

An ACCU is a unit issued by the Clean Energy Regulator that represents one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2-e) stored or avoided by a project. Each ACCU issued signifies the successful reduction or avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions.

How can do you earn ACCUs?

To earn ACCUs, businesses and individuals must register a project that reduces or avoids greenhouse gas emissions under the Emissions Reduction Fund. Once the project is approved and implemented, the emitter needs to report the amount of emissions reduced or avoided, which will be verified and validated. If successful, they will be awarded ACCUs.

How is the value of Australian Carbon Credit Units determined?

The value of ACCUs is determined by market supply and demand. As there is a limited number of credits available, the price can fluctuate over time based on the demand for credits and the overall success of emission reduction projects.

How does trading of ACCUs work?

ACCUs can be traded on the open market, allowing businesses to buy or sell their credits. This creates an economic incentive for businesses to reduce their emissions, as they can potentially sell any surplus credits to other emitting entities who require them for compliance or other purposes.

How are ACCUs verified?

Verification of ACCUs is done by accredited auditors, who assess whether the reported emission reductions or avoidances are genuine, and whether the project complies with the specific eligibility requirements of the method under which it is being conducted.

What factors affect the ACCU carbon price?

The ACCU carbon price is influenced by various factors, including the effectiveness of emission reduction projects, government policies and regulations, economic fluctuations, and overall supply and demand.

What is the relation between ACCUs and Carbon Farming Initiative Act 2011?

The Carbon Farming Initiative Act 2011 is the legislative basis for the creation of ACCUs, establishing the framework for the issuance, trade, and retirement of credits from eligible carbon farming projects in Australia.

Where can ACCUs be used in the market?

ACCUs can be used in various ways within the market, such as compliance with government regulations, voluntary offsetting of corporate emissions, or as a means to manage and hedge against future carbon price risks.

What happens if a company emits more than their ACCUs cover?

Companies that exceed their allowable emissions and do not have sufficient ACCUs to cover the excess must purchase additional credits, either from the government or on the open market, to ensure compliance with environmental regulations.

How do ACCU projects contribute to carbon reduction?

ACCU projects help reduce carbon emissions by incentivising businesses and individuals to implement emission reduction methods. Such projects can result in the generation and supply of ACCUs, representing the successful reduction or avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn help Australia meet its climate change targets.

Ready for change? Contact us.


    © 2021 Energy Action. All rights reserved. ABN 90 137 363 636
    Contact Us
    crosschevron-down linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram